Opening Plenary Session
Mr. Klaus Jäckel
Mr. Loïc Lelièvre
The Characterisation of Particle Emissions in the Railway Domain
Mr. Franck Poisson
SNCF – Direction Du Matériel
Agence d’Essai Ferroviaire (AEF)
Particle emission has a strong impact on air, water and ground quality. The impact on health cannot be ignored as it was estimated in 2012 that fine particles were responsible for 403,000 deaths in Europe.
As air quality is becoming a key issue of environmental impact, consequences on transportation are significant in large cities - industry can be stopped and transportation reduced (car speed, number of cars, etc). For railway transportation, the main problem occurs in underground networks. Trains are running in tunnels and passengers are located inside the coaches and on the platforms.
European and national governments are acting to develop legislation and regulation. Nevertheless, the new European Directive is not yet accepted by all European countries. Strong limit targets were promised for 2020. In parallel, countries are developing their own legislation - in France for example, the Comité Supérieur d’Hygiène Public has put in place regional plans on air quality. Since 2010, laws are also in place and decree will come in the later years. At the same time, public pressure is also growing, by way of television reporting and newspaper articles, which focus on the public health issue.
Regarding railway transport, several interactions occur when running: wheel / rail, catenary / pantograph, disc / pads, wheel / brake blocks. Then, several materials are in contact: steel, copper, carbon and sintered material. Due to stress and wear, some particles are eroded from components and emitted in the environment. Filters and catalytic converters are now installed on combustion engines, but for particles emitted by friction and wear must be investigated.
The presentation will introduce the key issue of air, ground and water pollution caused by particles. Examples of national laws will illustrate how the regulation is in place. Then, the main sources of particles emission of the railway sector will be presented, while the quantification of sources will also be mentioned. In the case of air pollution due to braking particles, the characterisation of emission on a braking test bench developed by SNCF test department will be investigated.
Future Brake Systems
Dr. Ralf Leiter
This session will explore the future of braking systems with regards to autonomous driving and electrification.
Ralf Leiter will speak to delegates about the structure and requirements and the potential of a number of solutions for various brake system manufacturers. Since we have seen a second attempt of introducing a full electronically controlled brake system, lessons have been learned from the system design.
Zero drag requirements, recuperation and less pollution requirements will lead to the application of old and new technologies and their combination.
Autonomous vehicles and car2x communication open new room for failures, in which the car industry has limited awarness and means to protect the new systems in terms of security and safety. Many learnings can be taken from the IT industry, so Ralf Leiter will also cover software systems used in vehicles, and the likelihood of new software business models for Tier 1 suppliers. This will include diagnosis and update online, Software-Gaps, Fraud, Firewalls, Antivirus, PTI etc.